Press ReleaseWhat's NGS, and How Does It Work?

What’s NGS, and How Does It Work?

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In the event you observe healthcare and medical information, you’ve heard the time period subsequent technology sequencing or NGS. It’s a idea that may be complicated, particularly since expertise continues to evolve. To raised perceive NGS, it’s essential to know a bit about its historical past. 

What Is NGS?

Let’s begin with the fundamentals. What’s NGS? Next generation sequencing is a high-throughput expertise that permits scientists to determine the code sequences of DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is the premise of life. It’s a double-helix code that determines who you’re and what you’ll seem like.

These two strands of DNA are made up of smaller items referred to as nucleotides. Every nucleotide accommodates simply 4 nucleobases:

  • Cytosine
  • Guanine
  • Adenine
  • Thymine

 The group of those bases determines if you should have blue eyes or brown, if you can be an artist or a science nerd, and if you can be tall or quick. The bases can be on the coronary heart of illness processes. For instance, a easy mutation within the group of a number of nucleobases can decide if you’ll develop most cancers, have sickle cell anemia or be in danger for coronary heart illness. 

The issue for scientists has all the time been how to determine DNA code. These 4 nucleobases make up numerous prospects, and it has all the time been a battle to determine them out. Lastly, twenty years after the invention of DNA, Frederick Sanger developed a approach to decode it. 

Sanger Sequencing

Sanger sequencing was one of many first sensible methods to sequence the nucleotides in DNA and continues to be used right now. With Sanger sequencing, scientists can decide the code of various nucleotides, one unit at a time. It may be accomplished manually or mechanically utilizing expertise. 

Though Sanger sequencing is an efficient approach to sequence DNA, it’s sluggish and dear. That made its use very limiting. Scientists wanted a approach to velocity up the method and produce down the associated fee. That led to the appearance of subsequent technology sequencing. 

How does NGS Work?

In contrast to Sanger sequencing, NGS can sequence many nucleotides without delay. Sequencing a full human genome shortly and precisely with this methodology is feasible. 

NGS obtained its begin in 2003 with the Human Genome Challenge. Via NGS, scientists can fragment DNA and RNA into completely different items, sequence them, after which put them again collectively. As well as, this expertise can sequence thousands and thousands of fragments without delay in a parallel trend. 

There are three major steps to NGS:

Library preparation – Library preparation is likely one of the most important steps to NGS. It entails making ready the DNA or RNA samples to work within the sequencing expertise. 

Sequencing – Sequencing entails loading what’s now fragmented sections of the code, or libraries, into the sequencer utilizing a movement cell. Then, the expertise amplifies that course of to permit thousands and thousands of copies of a single DNA strand. 

Information evaluation – Through the information evaluation section of subsequent technology sequencing, the expertise identifies the nucleotides and their base codes. 

NGS continues to evolve and, right now helps scientists higher perceive how one can deal with circumstances that have been all the time believed to be untreatable. 

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